Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa Kemal, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or “Father of the Turks.”
Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power.
Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides. The Mediterranean in the south, the Aegean in the west, and the Black Sea in the north. The Marmara Sea, in the northwest, includes the Istanbul and Dardanelles Straits and is a territorial water of Turkey.
Turkey, officially known as the Republic of Turkey, is both a European and an Asian country. It’s neighbour to the northwest is Bulgaria; Greece to the west; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east; Georgia to the northeast; Syria to the south; and Iraq to the southeast.